Chapter 12: When You’re in Control, and When You’re Not

185  2017 research: “One in Five Inpatient Emergency Department Cases May Lead to Surprise Bills,” Health Affairs, January 2017,

185  American College of Emergency Physicians: “EMTALA Fact Sheet,” American College of Emergency Physicians,–legal/emtala/emtala-fact-sheet/.

186  are charged more: “Per Visit Emergency Department Expenditures By Insurance Type, 1996–2015,” Health Affairs, July 2018,

186  2019 research: “The High Cost of Avoidable Hospital Emergency Department Visits,” UnitedHealth Group, July 22, 2019,

187  ER Inspector: “Be Prepared: Find the ER You Want to Go to Before an Emergency Happens,” ProPublica, September 19, 2019,

189  American Ambulance Association:

190  Urgent Care Association (UCA):

191  A 2017 study: “Comparing Utilization and Costs of Care in Freestanding Emergency Departments, Hospital Emergency Departments, and Urgent Care Centers,” Annals of Emergency Medicine, February 15, 2017,

195  enhanced recovery after surgery: “Enhanced Recovery after Surgery,” American Association of Nurse Anesthetists,

195  an online checklist: “Which Facility Is Best for My Outpatient Procedure?”, U.S. Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services,

196  Top 10 ASC Outpatient Procedures: “Top Outpatient Procedures at Hospitals vs Surgery Centers,” Definitive Healthcare, July 2019,

197  Healthcare Bluebook:

198  Patients Beyond Borders:

198  Joint Commission:

198  glossary: “Glossary of Terms,” Joint Commission,



198  specific procedures: “Benefits of JCI Accreditation and Certification,”, Joint Commission International,

199  price comparisons: “International Medical Treatment Prices,” Medical Tourism Association,

200  Narayana Health:

200  The story: “The World’s Cheapest Hospital Has to Get Even Cheaper,” Bloomberg Businessweek, March 26, 2019,

200  coronary thromboendarterectomy: “Pulmonary Thromboendarterectomy,” Cleveland Clinic,


200  cost calculator: