243 2019 study: “Claims Denials and Appeals in ACA Marketplace Plans,” Kaiser Family Foundation, February 25, 2019, https://www.kff.org/report-section/claims-denials-and-appeals-in-aca-marketplace-plans-issue-brief/.
244 An American Sickness: Elisabeth Rosenthal, An American Sickness: How Healthcare Became Big Business and How You Can Take It Back (New York: Penguin Books, 2017), https://www.amazon.com/dp/B01IOHQ9LO/.
244 Paying Till It Hurts: “Paying Till It Hurts,” New York Times, https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2014/health/paying-till-it-hurts.html.
244 a 2017 piece: “Those Indecipherable Medical Bills? They’re One Reason Health Care Costs So Much,” New York Times Magazine, March 29, 2017, https://www.nytimes.com/2017/03/29/magazine/those-indecipherable-medical-bills-theyre-one-reason-health-care-costs-so-much.html.
245 Alliance of Claims Assistance Professionals: https://www.claims.org/.
247 Medicare’s prices for outpatient surgeries: “Procedure Price Lookup,” Medicare.gov, U.S. Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, https://www.medicare.gov/procedure-price-lookup/.
249 ClinicalTrials.gov: ClinicalTrials.gov, U.S. National Library of Medicine, U.S. National Institutes of Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/home.
250 related educational materials: “Learn About Clinical Studies,” Clinical Trials.gov, U.S. National Library of Medicine, U.S. National Institutes of Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/about-studies/learn.
250 Project Patient Voice: U.S. Food and Drug Administration, https://www.fda.gov/about-fda/oncology-center-excellence/project-patient-voice.
250 reported: “FDA and NIH let clinical trial sponsors keep results secret and break the law,” Science, January 13, 2020, https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2020/01/fda-and-nih-let-clinical-trial-sponsors-keep-results-secret-and-break-law.
250 National Financial Resource Directory: https://www.patientadvocate.org/explore-our-resources/national-financial-resource-directory/.
250 AllTrials.net: https://www.alltrials.net/.
250 a website: “Who’s sharing their clinical trial results?,” FDAAA Trials Tracker, https://fdaaa.trialstracker.net/.
251 cancer patients who filed for bankruptcy: “Financial Insolvency as a Risk Factor for Early Mortality Among Patients With Cancer,” Journal of Clinial Oncology, 2016, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4933128/.
251 sweeping study: “Death or Debt? National Estimates of Financial Toxicity in Persons with Newly-Diagnosed Cancer,” American Journal of Medicine, June 12, 2018, https://www.amjmed.com/article/S0002-9343(18)30509-6/pdf.
252 National Foundation for Credit Counseling: https://www.nfcc.org/.
252 RIP Medical Debt: https://ripmedicaldebt.org/.
252 a list: “Debt Resources,” RIP Medical Debt, https://ripmedicaldebt.org/debt-resources/.
253 GoFundMe: https://www.gofundme.com/.
253 New Yorker article: “The Hidden Cost of GoFundMe Health Care,” New Yorker, July 1, 2019, https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2019/07/01/the-perverse-logic-of-gofundme-health-care.
254 ProPublica: “Health Care,” ProPublica, https://www.propublica.org/topics/healthcare.
254 by Vox: “Hospitals Kept ER Fees Secret. We Uncovered Them,” Vox, https://www.vox.com/2018/2/27/16936638/er-bills-emergency-room-hospital-fees-health-care-costs.
254 “Bill of the Month”: “Bill of The Month,” Kaiser Health News, https://khn.org/news/tag/bill-of-the-month/.
254 “Investigations”: “Investigations,” Kaiser Health News, https://khn.org/news/tag/investigation/.
255 that article: “Column: A 20-year-old fights back against her health insurer,” PBS NewsHour, https://www.pbs.org/newshour/health/column-a-20-year-old-fights-back-against-her-health-insurer.