Chapter 11: Unneeded and Misdiagnosed Care

170  research found: “Surgery for Blocked Arteries Is Often Unwarranted, Researchers Find,” New York Times, November 16, 2019,

170  American Board of Internal Medicine:

170  Choosing Wisely:

171  MedInsight Waste Calculator: “MedInsight Health Waste Calculator,” Milliman,

171  A study found: “Is Great Information Good Enough? Evidence from Physicians as Patients,” National Bureau of Economic Research,

171  The authors of the study: “Do as the Doctor Says, Not as He or She Does,” STAT, July 22, 2019,

172  2017 study: “Treating, Fast and Slow: Americans’ Understanding of and Responses to Low-Value Care.” The Milbank Quarterly, March 2017,

172  Virginia Center on Health Innovation:

173  A research study: “Cascades of Care After Incidental Findings in a US National Survey of Physicians,” Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), October 16, 2019,

173  comprehensive study: “Waste in the US Health Care System: Estimated Costs and Potential for Savings,” Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), October 7, 2019,

175  study: 2017 Statewide Low Value Services Report, Virginia Center on Health Information, April 2917,

175  2018 analysis: Medicare and the Health Care Delivery System, Medicare Payment Advisory Commission, June 2018,

176  Connecticut collaboration: “Leveraging Choosing Wisely as a Tool for Achieving Health Equity,” Connecticut Choosing Wisely Collaborative, July 2017,

177  four-page checklist: “Improving Diagnosis in Health Care: Improving Resources for Patients, Families, and Health Care Professionals,” Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences,

177  National Patient Safety Foundation:

177  Society to Improve Diagnosis in Medicine:

177  document never got presented: “The Missing Pathology Report.” Society to Improve Diagnosis in Medicine,

178  Consumers Advancing Patient Safety:

178  Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Center:

178  Idaho Supreme Court: “SHERIDAN v. John J. Jambura, M.D., David B. Bettis, M.D. and John Does I-V, Defendants.” Supreme Court of Idaho, May 22, 2001,

179  estimates made twenty years ago: “Patient Safety 15 Years After To Err Is Human – NAM Symposium,” National Academy of Medicine, December 10, 2015,

179  2014 study: “The frequency of diagnostic errors in outpatient care: estimations from three large observational studies involving US adult populations,” The BMJ (British Medical Journal), 2014,

180  acid reflux or GERD: “Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD),” Mayo Clinic,

180  Resource Directory:

181  patient toolkit: “Patient’s Toolkit for Diagnosis,” Society to Improve Diagnosis in Medicine,

182  a 2019 study: “Diagnosis Errors Account for One-Third of Severe Harm Malpractice Claims,” Modern Healthcare, July 11, 2019,